- Name the ten Gurus of the Sikhs in the right order
- Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469 - 1539)
- Guru Angad Dev Ji (1504 - 1552)
- Guru Amardas Ji (1479 - 1574)
- Guru Ramdas Ji (1534 - 1581)
- Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1563 - 1606)
- Guru Hargobind Ji (1595 - 1644)
- Guru Har Rai Ji (1630 - 1661)
- Guru Harkrishan Ji (1656 - 1664)
- Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (1621 - 1675)
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1666 - 1708)
- Name the present Guru of the Sikhs
Guru Granth Sahib Ji and Guru Panth Khalsa
- Who were the four Sahebzadas?
They were the sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- Name the four Sahebzadas
- Baba Ajit Singh Ji (1687 - 1704)
- Baba Jujhar Singh Ji (1689 - 1704)
- Baba Zorawar Singh Ji (1696 - 1704)
- Baba Fateh Singh Ji (1698 - 1704)
- Who was the eldest Sahebzada?
Baba Ajit Singh Ji
- Who was the youngest Sahebzada?
Baba Fateh Singh Ji
- Name the Sahebzadas who were bricked alive.
- Baba Fateh Singh Ji
- Baba Zorawar Singh Ji
- Name the Sahebzadas who achieved martyrdom in the battlefield of Chamkaur.
- Baba Ajit Singh Ji
- Baba Jujhar Singh Ji
- When & where was the Khalsa Panth created?
It was created on the day of Vaisakhi (March 30) of the year 1699 at Kesgarh Saheb, Anandpur by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- What name did Guru Gobind Singh Ji give to the newly created Sikh Community?
- Name the first 'Panj Pyaras' (The five beloved ones)
- Bhai Daya Singh Ji
- Bhai Dharam Singh Ji
- Bhai Himmat Singh Ji
- Bhai Mohkkam Singh Ji
- Bhai Saheb Singh Ji
- Name the five 'K's that every Sikh must always possess
- Kes (unshorn hair)
- Kangha (comb)
- Kirpan (knife / sword)
- Kaccha (short breeches)
- Kara (wrist band / bangle)
- Who is the spiritual father of all Sikhs (Khalsas)?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji
- Who is the spiritual mother of all Sikhs (Khalsas)?
Mata Saheb Kaur Ji
- What is the native place of all Sikhs (Khalsas)?
- What is the Sikh Salutation?
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa
Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh
- What is the Sikh Jaikara?
Jo Boley So Nihaal
Sat Sri Akaal
- What is the literal meaning of the word 'Sikh'?
- What is the literal meaning of the word 'Singh'?
- What is the literal meaning of the word 'Kaur'?
- Name the five prayers that comprise 'NITNEM' the daily prayer of the Sikhs (according to the SGPC Rehat Maryada)
- Morning (Dawn - Amrit Wela)
- Japji Saheb
- Jaap Saheb
- Evening (Dusk)
- Rehras Saheb which comprises Sodar, Choupai Saheb, Six (first 5 and 40th) Pauris of Anand Saheb, Mundawani, and Salok Mahala 2, the concluding hymn of Guru Granth Saheb.
- Night (Before sleeping)
- (Kirtan) Sohaila
- Which of the 'Baanis' of 'Nitnem' are not included in Guru Granth Saheb, but are taken from the 'Dasham Granth'?
- Jaap Saheb
- Choupai Saheb (included in Rehras Saheb)
- What are the four main apostate acts ('Kuraihats') prohibited for a Sikh?
- Shaving or cutting of hair
- Eating Kuttha meat
- Use of tobacco or any other intoxicant.
- Name the 'Five Takhts' of the Sikhs
- Akal Takht, Amritsar
- Harmandir Saheb, Patna (also known as Patna Saheb)
- Kesgarh Saheb, Anandpur
- Hazur Saheb, Nander
- Damdama Saheb, Talwandi Sabo (Bhatinda)
- Which Guru started the formal teaching of the 'Gurmukhi' script?
Guru Angad Dev Ji
- Which Guru formalised the concept of the shared meal into 'Guru-Ka-Langar'?
Guru Amardas Ji
- Who was the most long-lived Guru?
Guru Amardas Ji.
- Who got the tank excavated (dug out) in Amritsar?
Guru Ramdas Ji
- Who built Harmandir Saheb (The Golden Temple) and gave a central place of worship to the Sikhs?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
- Who first placed the sheets of copper gilt on Harmandir Saheb?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- Who first compiled the Guru Granth Saheb (The Adi Granth, then known as Pothi Saheb)?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
- When was the first compilation of Guru Granth Saheb installed in Harmandir Saheb?
- Who was appointed the first Granthi of Guru Granth Saheb?
Baba Buddha Ji
- Where is the original copy of Guru Granth Saheb placed?
- How many pages does the standard printed volume of Guru Granth Saheb contain?
- Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many Gurus?
Six Gurus : First Five Gurus & the Ninth Guru.
- When did Guru Granth Saheb get 'Guru Gaddi' (Guruship)?
October 3, 1708 A.D.
- Which Guru was seated on a red-hot iron plate and burning hot sand put on his body?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
- Which Guru is entitled 'Shahidaan De Sirtaj'?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji because he was the Pioneer and Champion of Martyrdom in Sikh History.
- Which Guru is related to 'MIRI-PIRI'?
Guru Hargobind Ji
- Which Guru was beheaded?
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
- Which Guru is entitled 'Hind Di Chadar'?
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji is entitled 'Hind Di Chadar' because he died to protect the Hindu faith.
- What is 'SIMARAN'?
Contemplation of the Almighty God
- What is the ceremony of Sikh marriage called?
- How many 'Lawans' are recited during the Sikh marriage?
- How much of his income must every Sikh contribute for religious purposes?
One-Tenth (called Daswandh)
- When was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born & where?
April 15, 1469 A.D. in Talwandi (now in Pakistan - Nankana Saheb)
- Name the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Father : Mehta Kalu Ji
Mother : Mata Tripta Ji
- Who were Bebe Nanaki & Bhai Jai Ram?
Bebe Nanaki was Guru Nanak Dev Ji's older sister & Bhai Jai Ram was her husband.
- Name the wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Mata Sulakhani Ji
- Name the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Baba Sri Chand Ji
Baba Lakhmi Das Ji.
- Which Guru established the first Gurdwara (Sangat)? Where & when?
Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur in 1521 A.D.
- What were Guru Nanak Dev Ji's travels called?
- Name the Muslim who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev Ji with a rebeck (a musical instrument invented by himself).
Bhai Mardana Ji.
- Where are the descendants of Mardana found?
In Ramdas, the city of Baba Buddha, and are called Rababies or the people of Rebeck.
- During his travels, Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Sayyadpur (now called Eminabad) and stayed at a carpenter's house (considered of low caste according to the Hindu caste system). Name the carpenter.
- Who was the (high caste) local official there whose feast Guru Nanak Dev Ji rejected?
- Where was the first missionary center (Manji) established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
The first 'Manji' was established at Bhai Laalo's house to spread Sikhism in Northern Punjab
- What was the abode of the Jogis (Yogis) of Gorakhnath clan called?
Gorakhmata (later became known as Nanakmata)
- Name the mountains where Guru Nanak Dev Ji met the renowned 'Sidhas'.
Kailash Parbat (also called Sumer Parbat)
- Name the composition in Guru Granth Saheb Ji that records the dialogues Guru Nanak Dev Ji had with the 'Sidhas'.
- Name the so called cannibal that Guru Nanak Dev Ji met during his travel through the wilderness of Assam.
- During his travels, whom did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet at Sangladeep (Ceylon)?
Raja Shiv Nabh
- Who was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India?
- Name the reigning Mughal ruler during Guru Nanak Dev Ji's time.
- What are the four hymns by Guru Nanak alluding to the invasions by Babar (1483-
1530 A.D.) collectively known as in Sikh literature?
Babarvani (Guru Nanak described the atrocities of Babar and his men in Punjab)
- Where was Guru Nanak taken captive during Babar's invasion?
Sayyadpur, now called Eminabad, in Gujranwala district of Pakistan
- Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Vali Kandhari?
- Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, which stands at the place where Vali Kandhari's ego was broken.
- When and where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light)?
In 1539 at Kartarpur
- How old was Guru Nanak Dev Ji when he passed away and transferred the 'Divine Light' over to Guru Angad Dev Ji?
- In which year was Guru Angad Dev Ji born?
In 1504 A.D.
- What was the original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
- Name the father of Bhai Lehna Ji.
- Who was Mata Kheevi Ji?
She was the wife of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
She is the only woman in Sikh History whose name has been mentioned in Guru Granth Saheb Ji.
- Name the children of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
2 sons: Bhai Datu and Bhai Dasu
2 daughters: Bibi Amro Ji and Bibi Anokhi Ji
- In what year was Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed as Guru?
- Where did Guru Angad Dev Ji stay during the years that Guru Amardas Ji served him?
- Who was Humayun, and why was he visiting Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Humayun was Babar's son. Having been defeated by Sher Shah, he was fleeing India via Lahore
and hearing the repute of Guru Angad Dev Ji, came to meet him at Khadur for his blessings,
with a good number of presents
- When did Guru Angad Dev Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light)?
In 1552 A.D.
- When was Guru Amardas Ji born?
In 1479 A.D.
- Name the parents of Guru Amardas Ji.
Bhai Tej Bhan and Mata Lakhmi (or Mata Bhakt Devi as per some historians)
- Name the wife of Guru Amardas Ji.
Bibi Mansa Devi
- Name the children of Guru Amardas Ji.
2 sons: Baba Mohan and Baba Mohri
2 daughters: Bibi Dani and Bibi Bhani
- Who was Bibi Amro Ji?
She was the daughter of Guru Angad Dev Ji and daughter-in-law of the brother of Guru Amardas
- How old was Guru Amardas Ji when he met Guru Angad Dev Ji?
61 years old
- For how many years did Guru Amardas Ji serve Guru Angad Dev Ji?
- What was the name of the river that Guru Amardas Ji walked to to get water for Guru Angad Dev Ji's bath?
- When was Guru Amardas Ji appointed as Guru?
- Name the eldest son of Guru Angad Dev Ji who struck Guru Amardas Ji with his foot when Guru Ji was seated on Gurgaddi (Guru's seat).
- Which city was founded by Guru Amardas Ji, where he settled down after being appointed as Guru?
- What is a baoli?
A well with steps proceeding down to the water level.
- When was the Baoli (well) with 84 steps completed by Guru Amardas Ji in Goindval?
In 1559 A.D.
- Who established the system of preachers called 'masands'?
Guru Amardas Ji
- In which year did Emperor Akbar visit Guru Amardas Ji?
- Why did Guru Amardas Ji refuse Emperor Akbar's offering of village revenues for the Guru-ka-langar?
This Community Kitchen must be community supported and depend only on the offerings of the devout.
- What did one have to do before he was allowed to attend discourse of Guru Amardas Ji?
They had to partake Guru-ka-langar
- What were the three special days declared by Guru Amardas Ji when all the Sikhs were to congregate from far and near at the Guru's place to hear His words?
Baisakhi (April 13), Maghi (1st day of Magha, mid January) and Diwali (festival of lights in October/November)
- Guru Amardas Ji opposed the practice of Purdah. What is Purdah?
Wearing of veil by women
- Guru Amardas Ji opposed the practice of Sati. What is Sati?
The practice of burning the widow on her husbands funeral pyre is called Sati. When the husband died, the wife either voluntarily burnt herself on the pyre of her husband or was thrown into the fire without her consent. In popular term the woman who did perform this act was called Sati (truthful).
- How many missionaries ('masands') did Guru Amardas Ji train and sent out to
various places? Out of these, how many were women?
Guru Amardas Ji trained and sent out 146 missionaries, out of which 52 were women. (Note: At
one time, the country of Afghanistan and Kashmir were under the jurisdiction of women
- In which year did Guru Amardas Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light)?
In 1574 A.D.
- In which year was Guru Ramdas Ji born?
In 1534 A.D.
- Name the parents of Guru Ramdas Ji.
Hari Das and Anup Devi (some historians list Daya Kaur as the mother)
- What was Guru Ramdas Ji's wife's name?
Bibi Bhani Ji. (Daughter of Guru Amardas Ji.)
- What was the original name of Guru Ramdas Ji?
- Name the three sons of Guru Ramdas Ji.
Prithi Chand (eldest)
Arjan Mal (later became Guru Arjan Dev Ji)
- When and where did Guru Ramdas Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light)?
In 1581 A.D. at Goindval.
- In which year was Guru Arjan Dev Ji born?
In 1563 A.D.
- What was Guru Arjan Dev Ji's wife's name?
Mata Ganga Ji
- Name the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
- Name the son of Prithi Chand.
- In which year was the first construction of Harmandir Saheb (Golden Temple)
- Which guru taught obedience to Satta and Balwand when they struck work?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
- Who was Bhai Gurdas?
He was the nephew (son of younger brother) of Guru Amardas Ji. He was one of the most learned Sikhs and his writings are still respected by Sikhs. The copy of Guru Granth Saheb at Kartarpur is written in his hand.
- How was Bhai Gurdas Ji a relative of Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Bhai Gurdas Ji was the cousin brother of Bibi Bhaani Ji, who was the daughter of Guru
Amardass Ji, wife of Guru Ramdas Ji, and mother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji
- Which Guru initiated Bhai Gurdas Ji into Sikhism?
Guru Ramdas Ji
- Whom did Guru Arjan Dev Ji dictate the Adi Granth to?
Bhai Gurdas Ji
- In which year did Bhai Gurdas die?
- When did Akbar die?
October 17, 1605 A.D.
- Under the rule of which Mughal Emperor was Guru Arjan Dev Ji made to sit on a red-hot iron plate?
- Where & when did Guru Arjan Dev Ji achieve martyrdom?
In Lahore on May 25, 1606 A.D.
- Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, that stands at the place where Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred.
- In which year was Guru Hargobind Ji born?
In 1595 A.D.
- Name the wifes of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Bibi Damodri, Bibi Mahadevi, and Bibi Nanaki
- How many sons did Guru Hargobind Ji have? Name them.
He had Five Sons. They were :
- Baba Gurditta (Born of Bibi Damodri) (Father of Guru Harrai)
- Baba Suraj Mal (Born of Bibi Mahadevi)
- Baba Ani Rai (Born of Bibi Nanaki)
- Baba Atal Rai (Born of Bibi Nanaki)
- (Guru) Tegh Bahadur (Born of Bibi Nanaki)
- Name the daughter of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Bibi Viro (Born of Bibi Damodri)
- How high is the tower of Baba Atal (built in memory of Baba Atal in Amritsar)?
It is 9 storeys high.
- Where was Guru Hargobind Ji sent as a state prisoner?
Fort of Gwalior.
- How many princes who were already imprisoned in the Fort of Gwalior got freed along with Guru Hargobind Ji?
- Guru Hargobind Ji donned the sword as a twin symbol of two powers. Name them.
Miri (Temporal Power) &
Piri (Spiritual Power).
- Name the fortification that Guru Hargobind Ji put up in Amritsar.
- What is the literal meaning of Akal Takht?
Throne of the Almighty.
- Who built the Akal Takht (then called Akal Bunga)?
Guru Hargobind Ji
- When did Guru Hargobind Ji build Akal Takht (Akal Bunga) in Amritsar?
In 1609 A.D.
- Why did Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji build the Akaal Takht directly across from
To represent the unity of spiritual and secular (military) affairs. Akaal Takhat (miri) was complimentary to Harmandar Saheb (piri).
- When did Jehangir die?
October 28, 1627 A.D.
- In which year was the first battle between Emperor Shah
Jahan and Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji fought?
The battle took place in 1634 A.D. The Emperor sent an army of 7000 cavalry under the command of his general Mukhlis Khan to capture the Guru. In the ensuing battle the Gurus forces emerged victorious after the Guru killed Mukhlis Khan in single combat with his sword. This battle marked a turning point as the Sikhs now turned militant under mughal persecution.
- How many battles did Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji fight against the attacking Mughal armies of Shah Jahan?
Six battles (He won all the battles)
- Who were the two masands of Kaabul who were bringing two choice steeds
(horses) of high pedigree to Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji?
Bakht Mal and Tara Chand
- Name the reigning Mughal rulers during Guru Hargobind Ji's time.
Jehangir and Shah Jahan
- Name the person who recovered the Kabul horses from the Mughals.
Bhai Bidhi Chand. (The horses belonged to a Sikh who was bringing them from Kabul as an offering for Guru Hargobind Ji, but they were seized on the way by the Mughals. Bidhi Chand recovered the first horse disguised as a hay-seller, and the second disguised as an astrologer.)
- What were the names of two horses that Bidhi Chand rescued from the stables of the governor of Lahore?
Dilbaag and Gulbaag
- Who recited the correct pronunciation ('Shudh Paath') of Japji Saheb to Guru Hargobind Ji?
Bhai Gopala Ji
- How many Gurus did Baba Budha Ji serve?
- How old was Baba Budha Ji when he passed away in 1631?
125 years old
- In which year did Guru Hargobind Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal
In 1644 A.D.
- In which year and where was Guru Har Rai Ji born?
In 1630 A.D. at Kiratpur.
- Name the father of Guru Har Rai Ji.
Baba Gurditta Ji.
- Name the brother of Guru Har Rai Ji.
- Name the wife of Guru Har Rai Ji.
- How many sons did Guru Harrai have? Name them.
He had Two sons. They were :
- Ram Rai
- (Guru) Harkrishan
- Who was punished (excommunicated from the community) for misinterpreting Gurbani and displaying miracles before Aurangzeb?
Ram Rai, son of Guru Harrai Ji.
- In which year did Guru Har Rai Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal
- In which year was Guru Harkrishan Ji born?
- How old was Guru Harkrishan Ji when he received the Guruship?
5 (five) years old
- Which Gurdwara stands at the place of Mirza Raja Jai Singh's bungalow where Guru Harkrishan Ji stayed when he came to Delhi?
Gurdwara Bangla Saheb.
- In which year did Guru Harkrishan Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal
- How old was Guru Harkrishan Ji when he became 'Joti Jot'?
8 (eight) years old
- Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Harkrishan Ji's body was
cremated after he became 'Joti Jot'?
Gurdwara Bala Saheb.
- What were the last words of Guru Harkrishan Ji announcing the next Guru?
"Baba Bakale", which meant that his successor is his grand uncle and would be found at village of Bakala
- How many members of the Sodhi family gathered at the village of Bakala claiming that they were the Guru and successor as named by Guru Harkrishan Ji?
About 22 (twenty two)
- Who found out the true Guru in Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and proclaimed him to the world, thus exposing the fake pretenders?
Bhai Makhan Shah
- In which year and where was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji born?
In 1621 A.D. at Amritsar.
- What was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's wife's name?
Mata Gujri Ji
- How many children did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji have? Name them.
One son. Gobind Rai later became Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- Who denied Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji entry to the Golden Temple?
The Sodhi Mahants
- At Kamrup (Assam), which two forces made a compromise brought about by Guru Tegh
The forces of Raja Ram Singh (a Rajput General of Aurangzeb who led an expedition against Assam) and Ahom King (the local King)
- Where did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji get a huge mound built in memory of Guru
visit to that place?
- Which Mughal Emperor ordered Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji to be beheaded at Chandni Chowk, Delhi?
- Who were the other three martyred along with Guru Tegh Bahadur by order of Aurangzeb?
- Bhai Mati Das
- Bhai Sati Das
- Bhai Dayala
- How were these three martyred?
- Bhai Mati Das: Sawn into two halves
- Bhai Sati Das: Burnt in cotton wrapped around his body
- Bhai Dayala: Boiled in hot water
- Name the leader of the delegation of 500 Kashmiri brahmins that came to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji for help.
Pandit Kirpa Ram (later became the Sanskrit teacher of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and eventually became a Khalsa and died fighting in the battle of Chamkaur.)
- How old was Gobind Rai (Guru Gobind Singh) then?
9 (nine) years old
- Where & when did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji achieve martyrdom?
In Delhi on November 11, 1675 A.D.
- Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was beheaded?
Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Chandni Chowk, Delhi
- Who cremated Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's body after he was beheaded?
Bhai Lakhi Shah.
- Which Gurdwara stands at the place where the body of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was cremated after he was beheaded?
Gurdwara Rakab Ganj, Delhi
- Who took Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's head to Anandpur?
Bhai Jaita Ji.
- Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's head was cremated?
Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Anandpur
- Who built Gurdwara Rakab Ganj and Gurdwara Sis Ganj in Delhi?
Sardar Baghel Singh in 1790 A.D.
- When was Guru Gobind Singh Ji born & where?
December 22, 1666 A.D. in Patna.
- What is the significance of Patna Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts)?
It is the birth place of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- Who built Harmandir Saheb, Patna (Patna Saheb)?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- In what year did Bhai Nandlaal Goyaa go to Anandpur Saheb to pay homage to Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
- Who were the poems of Bhai Nandlaal Goyaa about?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji
- Which was the first battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs?
The Battle of Bhangani was fought in February 1686 between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs led by Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur. The hill chiefs received a crushing defeat at the hands of the Guru.
- In which battle did Guru Gobind Singh Ji's Pathans leave him at a very critical point?
Battle of Bhangani
- How many sons did Peer Budhu Shah have? How many of them died in the battle of Bhangani?
He had four sons, two of which died in the battle of Bhangani
- What did Guru Gobind Singh Ji give Peer Budhu Shah in remembrance of
services rendered in the battle at Bhangaani?
A kanga with some of his broken hair, a kirpan (sword) and a turban
- What is the significance of Kesgarh Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts)?
Khalsa Panth was created here on Vaisakhi of 1699 A.D. by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
- What is the meaning of the word "Khalsa"?
"Khalsa" is a technical term which in the days of Mughal administration meant inalienable lands or revenues directly looked after or administered by the government of the king. Guru Gobind Singh applied this word specifically to those of the Sikhs whom he had baptized as Singhs/Kaurs. To them he gave the name of Khalsa, 'his own'. (Note that it is not correct to translate the word Khalsa as 'pure'. The word for pure is 'khalis'. The word 'Khalsa' has, however, been derived from 'khalis'.)
- At the Vaisakhi of 1699, after administering Khande-Ki-Pahul (Baptism) to the Punj Pyare (five beloved ones), what did Guru Gobind do?
He stood before them with folded hands, and begged them to baptise him in the same way as he had baptised them.
- What was the significance of Guru Gobind Singh bowing down before the Punj Pyare?
He was proclaiming the Punj Pyare to collectively be the Guru. The commission of Punj Pyare was to take his place after him and were competent to conduct the ceremony of baptism after him. What Guru Gobind Singh Ji did was to separate the personal and the scriptural aspects of the Guruship. The one he gave to the Khalsa (Miri) and the other to the Holy Granth (Piri). Both acquired the title of Guru, and were to be addressed as Guru Granth and Guru Panth.
- How many people were baptised after the Vaisakhi of 1699?
Approximately, 80,000 people were baptised in a few days after the Vaisakhi of 1699.
- What happened to those who stood out in opposition to this new mission?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji ordered that all those who called themselves Sikhs should get themselves confirmed by receiving the new baptism of the sword (Khande-Ki-Pahul). Those who still stood in opposition to his mission - such as Minas, Dhirmalias, and Ramraiyas - were ostracised and their company was forbidden to the true Sikhs.
- How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji start celebrating the Holi festival?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji started celebrating the Holi festival in his own way. He called it 'Hola Mahalla'. On the day following the Hindu festival, he held a military parade of all the Sikhs, who came out in their best and went through a sort of mimic battle.
- What is a 'Khanda'?
Khanda is a double-edged dagger. The Sikh emblem with the two swords of Miri-Piri, a Chakkar, and a Khanda in the middle, derives it's name from this Khanda.
- When did the battle of Anandpur take place?
1701 - 1704 A.D.
- At the battle of Anandpur, who cut off the head of Raja Kesari Chand?
Bhai Ude Singh
- What was the name of the Sikh who drove a spear into the elephant's head at
the battle of Anandpur?
Bhai Bachittar Singh
- Where did Raja Gummand Chand die?
Battle of Anandpur Saheb
- In the battle of Anandpur Saheb, who gave water to all dying soldiers irrespective of whether they were Sikhs or Muslims?
Bhai Kanhaiya (later became Kanhaiya Singh)
- When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji separate from his mother and two younger sons before going to the fort of Chamkaur?
December 20, 1704, at Sirsa river
- Who betrayed Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji to the Nawab of Sirhind?
- Where were Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji kept after being imprisoned?
Saman Burj (tower), Sirhind
- Name the Gurdwara that stands at the place where the younger Sahebzadas were bricked alive.
Fatehgarh Saheb (Fort of Victory)
- From which fort did the Panj Pyare (5 chosen ones) order Guru Gobind Singh Ji to leave for his safety?
Fort of Chamkaur
- What was the name of the Jungle that Guru Gobind Singh Ji wandered through bare-foot after leaving the fort of Chamkaur?
- Name the two Pathans who helped Guru Gobind Singh Ji march through the Mughal camp.
Nabi Khaan and Gani Khaan
- Name the Persian tutor of Guru Gobind Singh Ji who helped him when he was called to identify 'Uch-da-Peer'.
Qazi Pir Muhammad
- When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji receive the news of the martyrdom of the younger Sahebzadas?
At Jatpura by a messenger sent by Rai Kalha
- What was his prophecy there?
On hearing the news, he pulled a shrub from its roots with his arrow and said: "thus will this tyrannous rule be destroyed, root and branch."
- Who were the 'Chaali Mukte' i.e. the forty freed ones referred to in the Sikh 'Ardas'?
They were those forty Sikhs belonging to the village of Majha, who first denied Guru Gobind Singh Ji to be their Guru and later on got martyred for his sake fighting near the lake of Khidrana, also called Isharsar, on 29 December, 1705 after realising their mistake. Guru Gobind Singh Ji blessed them as Chali Mukte, the Forty Immortals. After them Khidrana became Muktsar - the Pool of Liberation.(NOTE : Some writers also refer the forty Sikhs who got killed in the fort of Chamkaur ('Chamkaur Di Gari') while facing an army of one million as the 'Chaali Mukte')
- Name the leader of the 'Chaali' (40) Mukte who fought for Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Muktsar.
Bhai Maha Singh Ji.
- Who was Mai Bhago Ji?
Mai Bhago Ji led the forty Sikhs (Chaali Muktey) back to Guru Gobind Singh Ji. She had also suffered injury in the battle. Guru Gobind Singh Ji took her in his care and there after she stayed on with Guru Gobind Singh Ji as one of his bodyguard, in male attire. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Nanded in 1708, she retired further south. She settled down at Jinvara, 11 km from Bidar in Karnataka where, immersed in meditation, she lived to attain a ripe old age. Her hut in Jinvara has now been converted into Gurdwara Tap Asthan Mai Bhago.
- Who was once boasting about his bravery to Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
- What is the significance of Damdama Saheb, Talwandi Sabo (one of the 5 Takhts)?
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji reproduced the whole Guru Granth Saheb here from memory.
- He made it a great seat of learning and called it 'Guru Ki Kashi'.
- What does 'Damdama' mean?
- Whom did Guru Gobind Singh Ji dictate the Guru Granth Saheb to?
Bhai Mani Singh Ji
- Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many Bhagats? Name them.
Fifteen Bhagats. They are :
- Which Bhagat has contributed the highest number of hymns in Guru Granth Saheb?
Bhagat Kabir Ji (541 hymns out of a total of 922 by 15 bhagats). The compositions consist of 227 Padas in 17 Raags and 237 Salokas.
- In what year was Kabir Das Ji born?
- What does the word 'Kabir' mean?
Kabir is an Arabic word meaning 'Great'.
- What caste did Kabir Ji belong to?
- What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Kabir?
Bhagat Kabir was a Weaver.
- Who was Kabir's Guru (teacher)?
- Name the two collections of Kabir Ji's works.
Kabir Granthavali and Bijak
- When did Kabir pass away?
1448 A.D. (According to some traditional accounts, including those of the Kabirpanthis, as the followers of Kabir are called, he lived for 120 years, from 1398 to 1518).
- When was Sheikh Farid born?
- Who is known to be the first recorded poet of the Punjabi language?
Sheikh Farid, the Sufi mystic and teacher.
- What does the word 'Farid' mean?
Farid is an Arabic word meaning 'Unique'.
- How many compositions of Sheikh Farid are incorporated in the Guru Granth Saheb?
4 (Four) Shabads (Hymns) and 112 Salokas (couplets). Guru Nanak, Guru Amardas, and Guru Arjan have continued the theme of some of Farid's couplets.
- When did Sheikh Farid pass away?
- How many hymns has Bhagat Beni contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
3 (Three) Hymns in Sri Raag, Raag Ramkali, and Raag Prabhati.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Bhikhan (1480 A.D.-1573 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
2 (Two) Hymns.
- When was Bhagat Dhanna born?
- How many hymns has Bhagat Dhanna contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
3 (Three) Hymns.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Jaidev contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
2 (Two) Hymns in Raag Gujri and Raag Maru.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Namdev (1270 A.D.-1350 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
61 (Sixty one) Hymns.
- What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Namdev?
Bhagat Namdev was a Calico-printer.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Parmanand contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
1 (One) Hymn on page 1253 of Guru Granth Saheb.
- When was Bhagat Pipa born?
About 1425 A.D.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Pipa contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
1 (One) Hymn.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Ramanand (1300 A.D.-1410 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
1 (One) Hymn on page 1195 of Guru Granth Saheb.
- What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Ravidas?
Bhagat Ravidas was a cobbler. He followed the family profession of tanning hides and making shoes.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Ravidas contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
40 (Forty) Hymns.
- What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Sadhna?
Bhagat Sadhna was a butcher.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Sadhna contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
1 (One) Hymn in Raag Bilaval on page 858 of Guru Granth Saheb.
- How many hymns has Bhagat Sain contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
1 (One) Hymn.
- What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Sain?
Bhagat Sain was a barber.
- When was Bhagat Surdas born?
- How many hymns has Bhagat Surdas contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb?
1 (One) Hymn in Raag Saarang. In fact, it is not a complete hymn, but a single line: "O mind, abandon the company of those who turn away from God". (Surdas whose verse figures in the Guru Granth Saheb is to be differentiated from the blind poet of the same name who wrote Sur Sagar).
- When was Bhagat Trilochan born?
- What is the literal meaning of 'Trilochan'?
The three-eyed, i.e. one who can see the past, present, and future all at once.
- How many hymns of Bhagat Trilochan are included in the Guru Granth Saheb?
4 (Four) Hymns, one each in Sri Raag and Raag Dhanasari, and two in Raag Gujri.
- Who were the 'Bhattas'?
Bhattas were bards who recited poetry lauding the grandeur of a ruler or the gallantry of a warrior. In the Sikh tradition, Bhattas are poets with the personal experience and vision of the spirituality of the Gurus whom they celebrate in their verse.
- Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many 'Bhattas'? Name them.
Eleven Bhattas. They are :
- Kulh Sahar
- What is the total number of Savaiye contributed by the Bhattas in Guru Granth Saheb?
123 (One hundred twenty three).
- Which Bhatta is reckoned to be the most learned of all the Bhattas?
Kulh (also called Kul Sahar or Kul Thakur).
- What are 'Chaupadas'?
Hymns of four padas or verses (stanzas).
- What are 'Chhepadas'?
Hymns of six padas or stanzas.
- What are 'Chakas'?
A sixer. It signifies a bunch of six padas.
- What are 'Dupadas'?
Hymns of two padas or verses (stanzas).
- What are 'Panchpadas'?
Hymns of five padas or verses (stanzas).
- What are 'Chhants'?
Lyrics usually of four stanzas each.
- What are 'Ashtpadas'?
Hymns of eight verses.
- Who wrote Sukhmani Saheb?
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
- Which Raag is Sukhmani Saheb written in?
- What is the literal meaning of 'Sukhmani'?
Consoler of the mind.
- When is the Sukhmani Saheb believed to have been composed?
Around 1602-1603 A.D.
- How many cantos (Ashtpadas) are contained in Sukhmani Saheb?
24 (Twenty Four), each comprising eight stanzas. A Sloka or couplet precedes each Ashtpadi.
- What is a 'Salok'?
Sloka, in Sanskrit, signifies a verse of laudation. In Hindi and Punjabi, Salok has come to imply a couplet with a moral or devotional content.
- How many Saloks are contained in Salok Mahala 9 (Saloks of the composition of Guru Teg Bahadur, forming the concluding portion of the Guru Granth Saheb, preceding Guru Arjan's Mundavani)
57 (Fifty Seven). They were incorporated in Guru Granth Saheb by Guru Gobind Singh. As is commonly believed, they were composed by Guru Teg Bahadur while in the 'Kotwali' (prison) at Chandni Chowk, Delhi, before he achieved martyrdom.
- How many Saloks comprise Salok Sahaskriti?
71 (Seventy One) verses (67 by Guru Arjan and 4 by Guru Nanak).
- What does the term 'Sahaskriti' denote?
The term 'Sahaskriti' denotes the language-form, a mixture of Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit, in which these Salokas have been written.
- What is a 'Vaar'?
Vaar is a verse form in Punjabi, popular in folklore as well as in refined poetry. In the old bardic tradition of the Punjab, Vaar meant the poem itself with it's typical theme as also the form in which it was cast. Structurally, a Vaar consists ofa number of stanzas called Pauris. The number of Pauris as well as lines to a Pauri varies from Vaar to Vaar, though the lines to a Pauri must have a common rhyme.
- How many Vaars are contained in the Guru Granth Saheb?
Guru Granth Saheb contains 22 (Twenty Two) Vaars dealing with spiritual and ethical themes.
- Who composed the highest number of Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb?
Guru Ram Das composed the highest number of Vaars, eight out of the twenty two included in the Guru Granth Saheb. Among the rest, three are by Guru Nanak, four by Guru Amardas, six by Guru Arjan, and one Vaar is by the bards, Satta and Balvand, attached to the Gurus.
- Which Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb don't have Salokas?
All the Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb with the exception of Basant Ki Vaar and Ramkali Ki Vaar by Satta and Balvand, have Salokas added to their Pauris by Guru Arjan at the time of the compilation of the Adi Granth.
- What are the 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek' in Guru Granth Saheb?
The 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek' is the title given to the miscellany comprising 152 Salokas or couplets appearing in the concluding portion of Guru Granth Saheb. Guru Arjan, when compiling the Adi Granth, introduced Salokas by the Gurus he had collected into the text of 'Vaars'. The couplets left over in the process were assembled under the caption 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek', i.e. Salokas in excess of the Vaars.
- What are the 'Vaaraan Bhai Gurdas'?
Vaaraan Bhai Gurdas is the title given to the collection of forty Vaars (or ballads) written in Punjabi by Bhai Gurdas. These Vaars, which are accepted as part of approved Sikh canon, reiterate or explain in simple idiom what was contained in the Sikh scripture. In fact, the Vaars were designated by Guru Arjan as the key to the Guru Granth Saheb.
- According to the index of Ragas at the end of Guru Granth Saheb Ji, what is the total number of Ragas and Raginis?
84 (Eighty Four)
- How many has the Guru used?
31 (Thirty One), the first being Sri Raag and the last Jaijavanti.
- Name these 31 Ragas
- Nat Narayan
- Mali Gourha
- Who wrote the 'Zaffarnama'?
While at Dina, Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote this 'Epistle of Victory' in Persian to Aurangzeb. In this he reminded him of his ill-treatment, and told him that, though so many of his Sikhs, besides his sons, had been killed, he was still unconquered.
- When did Aurangzeb die?
February, 1707 A.D.
- Who was the eldest son of Aurangzeb and why didn't he become the next Emperor?
Muhammad Sultan died before Aurangzeb on December 14, 1676.
- Name the third son of Aurangzeb who proclaimed himself the Emperor of India after the death of Aurangzeb.
- Name the second son of Aurangzeb who was the heir-apparent and who begged Guru Gobind Singh Ji's assistance against his brother, Muhammad Azam.
Prince Muhammad Muazzam (later became Emperor Muhammad Muazzam Bahadur Shah)
- In which battle did Guru Gobind Singh Ji lend a helping hand to Muhammad Muazzam?
Battle of Jajau (June 8, 1707)
- Who stabbed Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
One of the two pathans sent by Wazir Khan to kill Guru Gobind Singh Ji
- When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal
October 7, 1708 A.D.
- What is the significance of Hazur Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts)?
Guru Gobind Singh Ji became 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) here in 1708 A.D.
- Who built Hazur Saheb?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- On the banks of which river is Hazur Saheb situated?
- What was the relationship between Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb?
Jehangir was Akbar's son, Shah Jahan's father and Aurangzeb's grandfather.
(Akbar -->Jehangir -->Shah Jahan -->Aurangzeb)
- Name the cities founded by the Gurus.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji: Kartarpur
Guru Angad Dev Ji: Khadur Saheb
Guru Amardas Ji: Goindval Saheb
Guru Ramdas Ji: Amritsar
Guru Arjan Dev Ji: Tarn Taran, Kartarpur (Jullunder), Sri Hargobindpur
Guru Hargobind Ji: Kiratpur, Mehrey
Guru Har Rai Ji: Bagat and Chiryaghar of Kiratpur
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji: Anandpur (originally known as Chak Nanaki)
Guru Gobind Singh Ji: Paonta Saheb, Guru Ka Lahore
- Name the six forts of Anandpur.
- Name the five cardinal vices.
- Kam (Lust, fornication)
- Krodh (Anger, wrath)
- Lobh (Greed, hoarding)
- Moh (Worldly attachment)
- Ahankar (Conceit, egoism, pride)
- What are the virtuous counterparts of these five vices?
- Self Control of Kam
- Forgiveness of Krodh
- Contentment of Lobh
- Love of God of Moh
- Humility of Ahankar
- Name Ten historic Gurdwaras in Pakistan.
- Bal Leela
- Chhevin Patshai
- Dehra Saheb
- Kyara Saheb
- Maal Ji Saheb
- Nankana Saheb
- Panja Saheb
- Pati Saheb
- Sacha Soda
- Tambu Saheb
- Name the five 'sarovars' of Amritsar.
- Where has the starting 'Pauri' of 'Ardas' i.e. from 'Sri Bhagauti Ji Sahay ...to... Sab thain hoe sahay' taken from?
It is the first 'Pauri' of 'Bhagauti Ki Vaar' (or 'Chandi Ki Vaar') taken from the 'Dasham Granth'.
- Referring to the daily Sikh 'Ardas' where the various Sikh martyrs are remembered, write the type of martyrdom that the following Sikhs underwent :
- Bhai Mati Das: Sawn into two pieces (Aariyaan naal cheere gaye)
- Bhai Mani Singh: Body was cut at each joint (Band band kataye)
- Bhai Taru Singh: His hair was scrapped off his scalp (Khopariaan utarwaiyaan)
- Bhai Shahbaz Singh: He and his father (Subeg Singh) were crushed on the wheel. (Charakhariyaan te chare)
- Write the inter-family relationships of the Gurus after Guru Amardas.
- Guru Ramdas Ji was the son-in-law of Guru Amardas Ji
- Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the son of Guru Ramdas Ji
- Guru Hargobind Ji was the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji
- Guru Harrai Ji was the grandson of Guru Hargobind Ji
- Guru Harkrishan Ji was the son of Guru Harrai Ji
- Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was the son of Guru Hargobind Ji
- Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
- When was Banda Singh Bahadur born?
October 27, 1670 A.D.
- What was his name in childhood?
- What does "Bairagi" mean?
One who gives up worldly life; a sect of Vaishanavs.
- Name the Bairagi who captivated the heart of Lachhman Das and made him his disciple.
- What was Lachhman Das named by the Bairagis?
Madho Das Bairagi
- Name the old Yogi that Madho Das met in Nasik and learnt 'Tantric Science' (secrets of yoga and occultism) from.
- When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji meet Madho Das?
Autumn of 1708 in Nanded
- What did Guru Gobind Singh Ji name Madho Das after administering Amrit (Pahul) to him?
- What does 'Banda' mean?
- What title was given to Banda Singh by Guru Gobind Singh Ji before he left for Punjab?
Banda Singh 'Bahadur'
- Who were the five 'Punj Pyare' appointed to assist Banda Singh?
- Bhai Binod Singh
- Bhai Kahan Singh (son of Bhai Binod Singh)
- Bhai Baaj Singh
- Bhai Daya Singh
- Bhai Ram Singh (Brother of Bhai Baaj Singh)
- What were the emblems of temporal authority bestowed upon Banda Singh before his departure to Punjab?
A Nishan sahib (Flag) and a Nagara (Drum)
- Whom did Guru Gobind Singh Ji nominate as the first Jathedar (commander of the forces) of the Khalsa Panth?
Banda Singh Bahadur
- Which was the first town that Banda Singh's army attacked?
- Why did Banda Singh Bahadur's army attack Samana?
It was the residence of Sayyed Jalal-ud-din, the executioner of Guru Teg Bahadur, and of Shashal Beg and Bashal Beg, the executioners of the younger Sahibzadas at Sirhind.
- When was Samana conquered?
November 26, 1709 A.D.
- Name the ruler of Sadhaura who had tortured to death the great Muslim Saint, Sayyed Buddhu Shah, because he had helped Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the battle of Bhangani.
- Who abolished the Zamindaari (absentee landlord) system?
Banda Singh Bahadur
- When did Banda Singh Bahadur attack Sirhind, where the Nawab had ordered the live-burial of the younger Sahebzadas?
On May 12, 1710 A.D. (The battle was fought at Chhappar Chiri, 20 kms from Sarhind.)
- What did Wazir Khan do, and who killed him?
Wazir Khan ordered the murder of the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Fateh
Singh killed him in the Battle of Chappar-Chiri.
- Name the Sikh woman who had been carried away by Sher Muhammed Khan of Maler Kotla and buried in a grave after she had committed suicide to save her honor.
Bibi Anup Kaur (Banda Singh's forces dug the grave to perform her last religious rites)
- Whom did Banda Singh appoint as Governor of Sirhind after conquering Sirhind?
- Whom did Banda Singh appoint as Governor of Samana?
- What did Banda Singh Bahadur name the Fort of Mukhlispur after repairing it?
Lohgarh meaning Iron Fort. (For all intents and purposes, it became the capital of the Sikh territories.)
- After assuming royal authority at Lohgarh, what did Banda Singh Bahadur do?
- He struck coins in the name of the Guru.
- He introduced an Official Seal for his state documents and letters patent.
- He introduced his own Sammat or regnal year from the date of his conquest of Sirhind.
- He totally abolished the Zamindari (Landlord) System of the Mughals which had reduced the cultivators to the position of slaves.
- What did Banda Singh Bahadur's Official Seal read?
Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh
(The Kettle and the Sword, Victory and ready Patronage have been obtained from Guru Nanak - Guru Gobind Singh)
- What do Degh, Tegh, and Fateh mean?
Degh means Kettle (symbol of charity or of the means to feed the poor)
Tegh means Sword (symbol of power to protect the weak and helpless)
Fateh means Victory
- What was the green banner raised by the Mullas of Lahore?
The Mullas raised a green banner, called the Haidri Flag, and proclaimed a crusade (jehad) against the Sikhs.
- What was the new war-cry that Banda Singh Bahadur introduced?
'Fateh Darshan' meaning Victory to the Presence. (It was later rejected by the Khalsa since it came to be used for and to replace the old Sikh Salutation of 'Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh'.)
- Name the Sikh who sacrificed his life when he disguised himself in the garments of Banda Singh Bahadur and seated himself in his place, so that Banda Singh could escape from the fort of Lohgarh and retreat to the hills of Nahan.
Bhai Gulab Singh (on December 10, 1710)
- When did Emperor Bahadur Shah die?
February 18, 1712
- Who ascended the throne for just 10 months after the death of Bahadur Shah?
- Who defeated Jahander Shah to take over the throne of Delhi?
- When were the Sikhs forced to evacuate Sadhaura and Lohgarh and take refuge in the Jammu hills?
October, 1713 A.D.
- What was Banda Singh Bahadur's second wife's name?
Sahib Kaur. (He had by her a son, named Ranjit Singh - not the same as Maharaja Ranjit Singh)
- Who was the Governor of Lahore who made the forces of Banda Singh retreat to Gurdas Nangal in April, 1715 A.D.?
Abd-us-Samad Khan (father of Zakhriya Khan)
- What was the Sikh Enclosure at Gurdas Nangal called?
Fortress (Garhi) of Gurdaspur
- After eight long months in the Fortress of Gurdaspur, who had a difference in opinion with Banda Singh? What was the difference in opinion? What happened as a result of this difference in opinion?
Binod Singh had a difference in opinion with Banda Singh. Apparently, he proposed evacuating the enclosure and following their old tactics of cutting through the enemy's lines for a place of safety. Banda Singh was not in favor of it. Binod Singh, as per decision reached by his son Kahan Singh, left the enclosure.
- When was the Fortress of Gurdaspur captured by the Mughals?
December 7, 1715 A.D.
- Why were the bodies of Sikhs ripped opened?
The bodies of Sikhs were ripped opened in search of gold coins supposed to have been swallowed by them.
- Where were Banda Singh and his companions taken from Gurdas Nangal?
They were taken to lahore by Abdus Samad Khan and then despatched to Delhi under the charge of his son, Zakhriya Khan.
- What was the name of the Sikh who broke the chains around his hands and feet
when Emperor Farrukh Siyar taunted him and his fellow Sikhs?
- How many soldiers did Baaj Singh kill after breaking through the chains around his
hands and feet?
He killed seven soldiers
- When was Banda Singh Bahadur executed?
June 9, 1716
- Name the son of Banda Singh Bahadur from his first wife. What was his fate?
Ajai Singh. The executioner hacked the 4 year old child to pieces joint by joint with a long knife, dragged out his quivering heart and thrust it into the mouth of his father, Banda Singh Bahadur.
- How was Banda Singh Bahadur executed?
His eyes were first removed by the point of a butcher's knife. His left foot and then his two hands were severed from the body. His flesh was then torn with red-hot pincers, and finally he was decapitated and hacked to pieces limb by limb.
- What is meant by 'Chardi Kala'?
- Who were the Bandeis?
A division of Sikhs that apotheosized Banda Singh Bahadur and believed that he had inherited the succession of Guruship from Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They claimed that they should have an equal share in the management of the Gurdwaras and other affairs of the Panth.
- What was the group of staunch followers of Guru Gobind Singh Ji called?
'Tat Khalsa' as distinguished from the followers of other denominations who held that the personal Guruship had not been abolished by Guru Gobind Singh, and that their allegiance was still due to their respective preceptors.
- What were 'Gurmatas'?
In practice, the Sikh congregation (Sangat) would sit together, with the Holy Granth in their midst, and deliberating over questions of common interest would give their decisions in the form of resolutions, called 'Gurmatas'. All Sikhs were expected to receive them as decisions of the Guru and any attempt made to contravene them was looked upon as an act of sacrilege. Such meetings of the whole people, called the 'Sarbat Khalsa', were to be held twice a year, on the occasion of Diwali (October) and Vaisakhi (April).
- Whom did Mata Sundri in Delhi send to Amritsar to resolve the dispute between the Bandeis and Tat Khalsa?
Bhai Mani Singh and Kirpal Singh. Bhai Mani Singh was appointed Granthi (Head Priest) of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), Amritsar in 1721.
- When was Zakhrya Khan appointed as Governor of Lahore?
Zakhrya Khan, also known as 'Khan Bahadur', was appointed Governor of Lahore in 1726 A.D. when his father, Abdus Samad Khan was transferred to Multan.
- How many men did Tara Singh Vaan have with him to face the Mughal army sent by Zakhrya Khan?
22 men. All got martyred fighting the Mughal army in 1726 A.D.
- In what year was the title of 'Nawab' and a 'Jagir' presented to the Sikhs by the Mughal authorities?
- What was the name of the Sikh Government Contractor who was entrusted with the task of negotiation of the Nawabship and Jagir by Zakhrya Khan?
Subeg Singh. He was allowed to sit among the Khalsa assembly at Akal Takht, Amritsar, only after he had gone through the ceremony of exculpation, called 'tankhah', for having been a co-operator with the government.
- Who was given the title of Nawab?
Kapur Singh of Faizullapur
- On what conditions did Kapur Singh accept Nawabship, when a Jagir was offered to the Sikhs by the Lahore Governor in an attempt to buy peace with the Sikhs?
Under the conditions that (1) he should be permitted to continue to serve in Guru-ka-langar and
(2) to look after the horses and (3) that five Sikhs should touch with sacred feet the Royal
Command, both in order to reject it with contempt and also to sanctify it for acceptance
- What were the two divisions of the Dal Khalsa?
Buddha Dal (the army of the veterans) and Taruna Dal (the army of the young). The Buddha Dal was entrusted with the task of looking after the holy places, preaching the Gurus word and inducting converts into the Khalsa Panth by holding Baptismal ceremonies. The Taruna Dal was the more active division and its function was to fight in times of emergencies.
- Who led the Buddha Dal?
Nawab Kapoor Singh
- Who was the head of the Taruna Dal, stationed at Amritsar?
Charat Singh Sukarchakia
- Who supervised both the Budha Dal and Taruna Dal?
Nawab Kapur Singh
- Name the 15 year old boy who was beheaded in 1734 for using disrespectful language for Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Mohammed.
- When did Diwan Darbara Singh die?
July, 1734 A.D.
- When was the Jagir presented to the Sikhs confiscated?
- When did Bhai Mani Singh apply to the Governor of Lahore for permission to hold the Diwali festival in the temple of Amritsar? What was the condition of the permission?
1738 A.D. Bhai Mani Singh was to pay Rs.5000 after the fair, which was to last 10 days.
- Why couldn't Bhai Mani Singh pay the amount of Rs.5000?
Bhai Mani Singh hoped that he would be able to pay the sum out of the offerings to be made by the Khalsa attending the fair. The Governor, however, tricked him by sending a force under Diwan Lakhpat Rai to Amritsar on the day of the fair and scaring the Sikhs away.
- How was Bhai Mani Singh martyred?
His body was cut to pieces limb by limb.
- Which famous Sikh martyr was one of the 52 'Darbari kavis' (poets) of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Bhai Mani Singh Ji
- How many immediate family members of Bhai Mani Singh got martyred for Sikh Panth?
21 (Twenty One) : 11 brothers and 10 sons.
- As a result of the renewed persecutions, where did the Sikhs retreat to?
Most of the Sikhs left the plains and sought shelter in the Shivalik hills, Lakhi Jungle and the sandy deserts of Rajputana.
- In what year did the Sikhs attack Nadir Shah on his way back to Persia and relieved him of much of his booty?
- What was Nadir Shah's prophecy about Sikhs?
Nadir Shah told Zakhriya Khan that "The time is not far when these people (Sikhs) would raise their heads and become the rulers of this country."
- What were the rewards offered by Zakhrya Khan for the capture and destruction of Sikhs?
Ten Rupees paid to anyone giving information which lead to the arrest of a Sikh.
Fifty Rupees paid to anyone bringing the head of a Sikh.
- What was Massa Ranghar known to have done during the persecution of the Sikhs in Zakhriya Khan's period?
Brought in cartloads of heads of Sikhs
- What did Massa Ranghar do when he was appointed the chief of Amritsar by the
Mughal governor ?
He held charge of Golden Temple and banned Sikhs from visiting it. He had turned the holy precincts into a stable and the inmost sanctuary into a nautchhouse where he used to smoke and drink and enjoy dance of public women. He also started abusing Hindus and Sikhs of Amritsar.
- Who were the two Sikhs who killed Massa Ranghar?
Bhai Mehtab Singh and Bhai Sukha Singh
- How did they kill Massa Ranghar?
In August 1740, they reached Amritsar. Disguising themselves as Mohammedans and filling two bags with well rounded brick-bats, they entered the precincts of the temple under the pretext of paying their land-revenue. While Sukha singh watched the entrance, Mehtab Singh fell on the tyrant like lightening and cut off his head.
- Where did Mehtab Singh and Sukha Singh take the head of Massa Ranghar?
Budha Jorh in Deserts of Rajasthan.
- How was Mehtab Singh martyred?
Publicly broken on the wheel.
- What was the name of the road that Bhai Bota Singh and Bhai Gurja Singh blocked and charged tolls to travellers using it?
Grand Trunk Road near Sarai Nurdin
- What were the tolls charged by Bota Singh and Garja Singh?
One Anna (6.25 Paise) per cart and one Paisa per donkey-load.
- What was the fate of Bota Singh and Garja Singh?
Since no one reported them to the Mughals and paid their tolls without complaining, Bota Singh himself wrote to the Governor of Lahore announcing himself and the tax he was levying on travellers. Zakhriya Khan sent a detachment of 100 horses to arrest him. Bota Singh and Garja Singh refused to surrender and died fighting.
- When did Bhai Taru Singh achieve martyrdom?
June, 1745 A.D.
- Why and how was he martyred?
He cultivated fields and whatever was produced, he offered to his Sikh brethren in exile. This was considered treason and he was reported by Harbhagat of Jandiala and executed. His hair was scrapped of his scalp.
- When did Zakhriya Khan die?
June, 1745 A.D.
- Who was the successor of Zakhriya Khan?
His son, Yahiya Khan.
- Why and how were Subeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh martyred?
Subeg Singh, who had contracts with government, was martyred under suspicion that he was supplying info to Sikhs. His 15 year old son, Shahbaz Singh was martyred because he refused to convert to Islam under the wishes of this Qazi at the Mohammedan school he studied at.
Subeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh were put on a wheel with slashing knives arranged around it and turned on it.
- What was Diwan Lakhpat Rai's brother's name?
Jaspat Rai, Faujdar of Eminabad.
- When Jaspat Rai attacked the Sikhs visiting Eminabad, who killed him?
Nirbhau Singh got onto the elephant of Jaspat Rai and cut off his head.
- What does 'Ghalughaara' mean in English?
- In what year did the 'Chhota Ghalughaara' (First Holocaust) occur?
- In the 'Chhota Ghalughaara', what were the names of the Nawab and the Hindu Diwaan who led the sudden Mughal attack on the Sikhs as they crossed the Raavi River?
Yahiya Khaan and Lakhpat Rai (Lakhpat was Hindu Diwaan)
- How many Sikhs were killed in the 'Chhota Ghalughaara'?
At least 7000 were killed and 3000 brought as prisoners to Lahore, where they were beheaded at the 'Nakhas', after being subjected to indignities and torture.
- When did Yahiya Khan lose power?
Yahiya Khan was ousted by his younger brother, Shah Nawaz Khan, the Governor of Multan, in March 1747. Lakhpat Rai was also thrown in prison.
- When was Nadir Shah assasinated?
June 8, 1747 A.D.
- Who ascended the throne of Afganistan after the assasination of Nadir Shah?
Ahmed Shah Durrani (also known as Ahmed Shah Abdali)
- Whom did Shah Nawaz Khan invite to invade India?
Ahmed Shah Durrani, ruler of Kabul.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani establish his control over Lahore?
January 12, 1748 A.D.
- Who defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani?
The Mughals defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani in the battle of Manupur, near Sirhind, in the middle of March, 1748.
- After his defeat, when Ahmed Shah Durrani left Sirhind, who attacked the Durranis, looting and plundering considerable wealth and horses from the Durranis?
Sardar Charat Singh Sukarchakia
- Who became the new Governor of Lahore and Multan?
Mir Mannu, on April 11, 1748 A.D.
- When was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia born?
May 3, 1718 A.D.
- What was Jassa Singh's father's name?
- How old was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when his father died?
5 years old
- Who was entreated to take care of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when his father died?
Mata Sundri Ji
- How long did Jassa Singh and his mother serve Mata Sundri in Delhi ?
For a period of about 7 years.
- Whom did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia's mother leave him with (as his god-father)?
Sardar Kapur Singh. Jassa Singh became famous as his adopted son.
- Who lead the attack on Salabat Khan to liberate Amritsar from under his control in March 1748?
Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. He chopped off the head of Salabat Khan in the battle.
- Name the twelve Sikh Misls (regiments).
- Ahluwalia (led by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia)
- Bhangi (led by Sardar Hari Singh Bhangi.) Also called Dhillon Sardars.
- Dalewalia (led by Gulab Singh Dalewalia)
- Faizalpuria (led by Nawab Kapoor Singh Virk)
- Kanaihya (led by Jai Singh Kanaihya)
- Karor Singhia (led by Karora Singh Dhaliwal)
- Nakai (led by Hari Singh Nakai)
- Nishanwala (led by Dasaundha Singh)
- Ramgarhia (led by Nand Singh Sanghania)
- Sukerchakia (led by Nodh Singh.) Ranjit Singh's Misl.
- Shaheed (drew their name from Baba Deep Singh Ji Shaheed)
- Phulkian (led by Ala Singh)
- What were these Misls collectively called?
- Who was the founder of the Dal Khalsa?
Nawab Kapur Singh
- When was Jassa Singh chosen the Supreme Commander of the Dal Khalsa?
March 29, 1748 A.D.
- What is a 'Rauni'?
Rauni is a thick boundary wall or enclosure. It is not a fortress or a fort, but is a minor shelter.
- What was the name of the Rauni built in Amritsar in April, 1748?
Ram Rauni, after the name of the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. The enclosure was built on a piece of land near Ramsar.
- Whom did Nawab Kapur Singh appoint as the new Jathedar of the Khalsa Panth?
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1753.
- Who laid the foundation stone of Harmandar Saheb when it was rebuilt by the Taruna Dal?
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
- Name the Sikh warrior who was awarded the title Sultan-ul-Quam (King of the Khalsa Panth).
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when he defeated the ruler of Lahore in 1761
- When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia occupy Kapurthala?
In 1778, Jassa Singh occupied Kapurthala and assumed the title of king. He also issued coins.
- What was the inscription on the coins minted by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in the name of the Gurus?
Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh
- When Adeena Beg failed in his negotiations with Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, who refused to accept a share in political power or to have an independent state, whom did he manage to net in to serve under him?
Jassa Singh Ramgharia, his 3 brothers and some associates.
- When was Ram Rauni seized and for how long?
The Ram Rauni was seized in October, 1748 by Adeena Beg and Jassa Singh Ramgharia and the seize went on for 3 months from October-December, 1748.
- What did Jassa Singh Ramgharia decide to do?
He decided to desert the royal army and join his brethren Singhs.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the second time?
December, 1748 A.D., nine months after his first invasion in March, 1748.
- Who made an offering of Rs.11000 for the service of the holy tank at Harmandir Saheb?
Diwan Koura Mal made this offering. The holy tank which had been filled up by the orders of Lakhpat Rai in Yahiya Khan's time, was dug up and cleaned.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the third time?
January, 1752 A.D.
- When was Diwan Koura Mal killed?
March 1752 A.D. He was killed by a shot fired by an agent of Adeena Beg during the defeat of Mir Mannu at the hands of the Durranis.
- When was the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu renewed?
March 1752 A.D.
- How did Mir Mannu treat Sikh women?
He tortured them in order to force them to abandon their religion. He ordered the children and babies of imprisoned Sikh women to be speared alive, or cut up into pieces and made into necklaces to be put around the mother's neck.
- How many years did this slaughter of Sikh children go on for?
- During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what price was paid for the severed head of a Sikh?
Rs. 80 (equivalent to one year's pay)
- During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what happened if a person lost a horse in fighting a Sikh?
The government replaced it with another horse.
- When did Nawab Kapur Singh die?
October 7, 1753 A.D.
- When did Mir Mannu finally die?
November 2, 1753 A.D.
- When was Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia formally appointed as the political and religious leader of the Khalsa Panth in place of Nawab Kapur Singh?
April 10, 1756 A.D.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the fourth time?
January 28, 1757 A.D.
- When did Adeena Beg die?
September 15, 1758 A.D.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the fifth time?
October 25, 1759 A.D.
- When was the historic battle of Panipat fought?
January 14, 1761 A.D.
- Why was Ala Singh condemned and fined by the Dal Khalsa?
For his act of submission to the foreigner - in March 1761, Ala Singh was confirmed as a ruler independent of Sirhind in return for a tribute of five lakhs annually.
- How many Hindu women were released and restored to their families when the Sikhs attacked the Durrani forces returning from Delhi?
About 2200 Hindu women.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the sixth time?
February 3, 1762 A.D.
- On what date did the Wada Ghalughaara (Greater Holocaust) occur?
February 5, 1762
- In the Wada Ghalughaaraa, out of the 30,000 Sikhs, how many were massacred by the Mughal forces?
10,000 (mainly women and children)
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani blow up Harmandir Sahib with gunpowder?
April 10, 1762 A.D. The tank after being desecrated with the blood of cows was filled with refuse and debris. The 'Bunghas' (rest-houses) meant for pilgrims were destroyed.
- How did he get wounded?
As the buildings were being blown up, a flying brick-bat struck him on his nose and inflicted a wound from which he never recovered.
- Who was Baba Deep Singh?
Baba Deep Singh was incharge of the Gurdwara at Talwandi Sabo, called Damdama Saheb. He had received baptism from the hands of Guru Gobind Singh Ji himself. He was one of the most scholarly Sikhs of his time and had helped the tenth Guru, along with Bhai Mani Singh, in preparing the final version of the Adi Granth.
On hearing about the desecration of Harmandir Saheb (Golden Temple) by Durrani, he started at once to avenge the insult. In the battle of Goharval, he received a mortal wound, but supporting his wounded head, he went on fighting untill he fell dead in the precincts of Harmandir Saheb.
- Why did Hari Singh Bhangi lead an expedition against Kasur?
To free the wife of a brahmin of Kasur on april 10, 1763.
- Who got the Gurdwara 'Fatehgarh Saheb' built at the place where the infant sons Guru Gobind Singh Ji were bricked alive?
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1764.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the seventh time?
October, 1764 A.D.
- When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the eighth and last time?
November, 1765 A.D.
- What caused Ahmad Shah's death in June 1773?
The brick-bat that hit his nose during his desecration of Harmandar Saheb made a wound that turned cancerous and eventually caused his death
- When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia pass away?
October 20, 1783 A.D.
- What city did Sardar Baghel Singh occupy in the year 1790?
- Who did Sardar Baghel Singh's forces defeat in order to capture Delhi?
Shah Alam II
- How large a force did Sardar Baghel Singh leave at Delhi?
- What is the place in Delhi known as, where Sardar Baghel Singh stationed 30,000
of his troops?
Tees Hazari (The Place of 30,000)
- When and where was Maharaja Ranjit Singh born?
Nov. 13, 1780 at Gujranwala
- What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's father's name?
Mahan Singh (son of Sardar Charat Singh)
- What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's mother's name?
- What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's mother-in-law's name who played an important
part in his life?
Sardarni Sada Kaur, wife of Jai Singh, the Kanhaiya leader. (She is believed to be the ladder by which Ranjit Singh reached the climax of his power)
- Who was the first wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Mehtab Kaur, daughter of Sardarni Sada Kaur.
- What was the name of the wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who gave birth to Kharak Singh in 1802 ?
Rani Raj Kaur, daughter of Nakai Sardar Khazan Singh
- Name the sons of Ranjit Singh.
Sher Singh and Tara Singh (born of Mehtab Kaur), Dilip Singh (born of Jind Kaur), and Kharak Singh (born of Rani Raj Kaur).
- Who was entitled 'Sher-e-Punjab' (Lion of Punjab)?
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- For how many years did Maharaja Ranjit Singh rule for?
40 Years (1799-1839)
- What diamond did Maharaja Ranjit Singh wear on his arm?
- Who presented the Kohinoor diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
The wife of Shah Shuja, the former king of Kabul, whom Maharaja Ranjit Singh released from his opponents in Kashmir.
- Where was the first great victory of Maharaja Ranjit Singh against the Afghans?
- At Multaan, what famous gun was used by the troops of Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Jamjama Top (gun)
- When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupy throne in Lahore?
July 7, 1799 A.D.
- When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh annex Amritsar?
In 1802 A.D.
- When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh annex Multan, Kashmir, Peshawar, and Bannu?
He annexed Multan in 1818 A.D., Kashmir in 1819 A.D., and Peshawar and Bannu in 1823 A.D.
- In which year did the enthroning of Ranjit Singh as the Maharaja of Punjab take place?
Baisakhi day of 1801 A.D.
- What was the name of the commemorative coin issued on this auspicious occasion
- How long did the Sarkar Khalsa rule Punjab for?
50 years (1799-1849 A.D.)
- Why was Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa given the last name "Nalwa" by Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Because he slayed a lion (tiger) with a sword while on a hunting expedition with Maharaja Ranjit
Singh, thus saving both his life and the Maharaja's
- What does "Haria Raghle" mean?
Hari Singh has come
- Which famous Gurdwara did Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa build?
Gurdwara Panja Saheb
- What fortress of great military importance did Hari Singh Nalwa capture?
Fortress at Jamrud
- What is the literal meaning of the word 'Nihang'?
'Nihang' is a persian word which means 'crocodile'.
- Who caused the Ghazis to say, "Toba Toba, Khuda Khud, Khalsa Shud!"?
Akali Phula Singh
- In which year was Akali Phula Singh made Jathedar of Akal Takht?
- As Jathedar of Akal Takht, what did Akali Phula Singh do to Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
When Ranjit Singh married a Muslim woman, named Moran of Lahore, Akali Phula Singh, as the Jathedar of Akal Takth declared that Maharaja Ranjit Singh is not a Sikh anymore and is a 'Tankhaiya' which means out of Sikhism. He ordered the defendant to be at Golden temple before the community. Ranjit Singh came and admitted that he had made a mistake. Akali Phula Singh ordered 50 lashes for Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh bowed down to receive his punishment. Panj Pyaras were gratified at the submission of the Maharaja and took a lenient view and accepted a fine of Rs. 1,25,000 from the Maharaja.
- Across the river Kabul, there is a tomb (Samaadhi) that still stands as a witness to a warrior's undying chivalry. Who was this warrior?
Akali Phula Singh
- When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh die?
June 27, 1839
- When did Maharaja Kharak Singh, successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh die?
November 6, 1840 A.D. (His son, Naunihal Singh died on same day too).
- Who killed Kharak Singh?
- Who was the successor of Maharaja Kharak Singh?
Maharaja Sher Singh became successor on January 18, 1841 A.D.
- When was Maharaja Sher Singh murdered?
September, 1843 A.D.
- Who was the successor?
Maharaja Duleep Singh, son of Maharani Jind Kaur.
- When did Maharaja Duleep Singh accept the Christian faith?
In 1853, Maharaja Duleep Singh, the last Sikh ruler of the Punjab, accepted the Christian faith.
- Who went to England to meet Maharaja Duleep Singh and was responsible for his public renunciation of Christianity and return to the Sikh faith?
Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia. He was the chief agent of Maharaja Duleep Singh in India during his struggle against the British Government in the eighteen eighties. It was he who had provided the Maharaja with important documentary evidence in support of the Maharaja's claims to his private ancestral estates in the Punjab and had used his influence to win the sympathies of the Sikhs in his favor.
- Whom did Maharaja Duleep Singh nominate as his would-be prime minister?
Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia.
- When and where did Maharaja Duleep Singh die?
Maharaja Duleep Singh died in Paris on October 22, 1893.
- When was the First Anglo-Sikh war fought?
- When was the Second Anglo-Sikh war fought?
- When was the Brahmo Samaj established?
The Brahma Sabha, later known as Brahmo Samaj, was founded by Raja Rammohan Roy in Bengal in 1828.
- When was the Arya Samaj established?
The Arya Samaj was established at Bombay in 1875. The seed was sown by the publication of Swami Dayananda's 'Satyarth Prakash' in Hindi.
- Who started the Nirankari Movement?
Baba Dayal, a contemporary of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founded the Nirankari Darbar at Rawalpindi in 1851 A.D. (this body later took the form of a sect.)
- What does Nirankar mean?
The Formless One
- When was Baba Dayal born?
Baba Dayal was born at Peshawar in 1783.
- How did Baba Dayal get married?
Baba Dayal got married in March 1808 (Chet) at Bhera to the daughter of Bhai Charan Dass Kapur. It was the month of Chet which, according to Brahamanical cult, is inauspicious and hence no Pandit would agree to perform the ceremony. Baba Dayal hit upon a new idea of a new and revolutionary type of marriage. Shabads and Anand Sahib was recited and Ardas was done for the success of this "Anand Marriage".
- When did Baba Dayal die?
Baba Dayal died on 30th January, 1855.
- Who succeeded Baba Dayal?
Baba Dayal appointed his eldest son, Baba Darbara Singh to succeed him.
- What was Baba Darbara Singh's contribution to the reform of the "Anand Marriage"?
On March 13, 1855, Baba Darbara Singh called a conference of his followers at the Nirankari darbar at Rawalpindi. Here a young couple was united in wedlock by the Anand Marriage by circumambulating the Guru Granth Sahib four times with the tunes of the hymns. Thereafter four 'Lavan' composed by Guru Ram Das Ji and shabads were recited. In history, this may be said to be the first "Anand Marriage".
- Who started the Namdhari Movement (also known as Kuka Movement)?
The founder was Bhai Balak Singh of Hazro but his follower Baba Ram Singh Namdhari gave it a more positive orientation.
- Wnen was Baba Ram Singh born?
Baba Ram Singh was born on February 3, 1816.
- How many Kukas (Namdharis) were blown from the guns?
Sixty-five Kukas were unjustifiably blown from the guns by the British Government in India on January 17-18, 1872, when they decided to march against the butchers of Maler-Kotla.
- When and where did Baba Ram Singh die?
Baba Ram Singh was deported to Rangoon where he died on November 29, 1884.
- Who was the originator of Singh Sabha at Amritsar?
Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia of Raja Sansi was the originator of Singh Sabha at Amritsar in 1873. He was the president of the society and Giani Gian Singh the secretary. (Other prominent Sikhs like Baba Khem Singh Bedi and Kanwar Bikram Singh were involved too, but he was the moving spirit of the body.)
- What were the main objectives of the Singh Sabha?
The Singh Sabha mainly undertook to:
- restore Sikhism to it's pristine purity;
- edit and publish historical and religious books;
- propagate current knowledge, using Punjabi as the medium, and to start magazines and newspapers in Punjabi;
- reform and bring back into the Sikh fold the apostates; and
- interest the highlyplaced Englishmen, in and ensure their association with, the educational program of Sikhs.
- When was the second Singh Sabha established?
The second Singh Sabha was established in Lahore in 1879, with Dewan Boota Singh and Professor Gurmukh Singh as President and Secretary.
- What was the Singh Sabha at Amritsar renamed to?
The Amritsar Singh Sabha became the central organization and other Singh Sabha's became associated with it. It's name was changed to Khalsa Diwan. Baba Khem Singh Bedi became the President and Professor Gurmukh Singh it's chief Secretary.
- When was the Khalsa Diwan at Lahore established?
Professor Gurmukh Singh founded the Khalsa Diwan of Lahore in 1886.
- What was the name of the newspaper started by the Khalsa Diwan, Lahore?
A newspaper called the "Khalsa Akhbar" was started by the Khalsa Diwan, with Bhai Dit Singh as it's editor.
- Name some important works of Bhai Kahan Singh of Nabha?
Bhai Kahan Singh was a great scholar of Sikh literature. Some of his important works are:
- Ham Hindu Nahin
- Gurmat Prabhakar
- Gurmat Sudhakar
- Encyclopedia of Sikh Literature (this was his magnum opus)
- When was the Khalsa College, Amritsar founded?
The main work of the Khalsa Diwan was the foundation of the Khalsa College, Amritsar, in 1892.
- When did Professor Gurmukh Singh die?
Professor Gurmukh Singh died in 1898.
- When was the Chief Khalsa Diwan started?
The Lahore Khalsa Diwan could not survive the incessant shocks of the deaths of Sir Attar Singh (1896), Professor Gurmukh Singh (1898), and Bhai Dit Singh (1901). It's place was taken by the Chief Khalsa Diwan, Amritsar, that held it's first meeting on October 30, 1902. Bhai Arjun Singh was elected President and Sardar Sunder Singh Majithia, the Secretary.
- The inaugural prayer of the Chief Khalsa Diwan was offered by Babu Teja Singh. How did he become a dissenter later on?
Babu Teja Singh founded a new association called the "Panch Khalsa Diwan", which did much useful work in propagating the mission of Guru Gobind Singh, but in the end floundered pitifully in trying to rearrange the text of Guru Granth Saheb by excluding the compositions of the Bards (Bhattas) and including those of the Tenth Guru.
- When was the Anand Marriage Act passed?
The Anand Marriage Act, legalising the Sikh form of marriage, was passed in 1909.
- When was the Kirpan exempted from the Arms Act?
The Kirpan was exempted from the Arms Act (in India) in 1914.
- When did the Sikhs organize a political body of their own?
The Sikhs organized a political body of their own, called the "Sikh League", and held it's first session at Amritsar, in 1919.
- What was the name of this new phase of reform that began among the Sikhs?
It was called the Akali Movement.
- At Guru-ka-Baagh, what was the name of the British official who ordered the merciless beating of non-violent, protesting Akalis?
- At Guru-ka-Baagh, how many Akalis ended up in the hospital as a result of the merciless beatings given by the British?
- What was the name of the Udaasi Mahant who lodged the complaint that the Akalis were cutting timber from Gurdwara land?
- When was the beating of Sikh volunteers stopped?
September 13, 1922.
- Why did the Sikh Sangat of Panja Saheb want to stop the train passing through the
Panja Saheb railway station?
To feed the Akali prisoners from Guru-ka-Baagh, who had not been given any food by the British authorities
- Who were the two Sikhs who were crushed to death under the train at Panja Saheb?
Partaap Singh and Karam Singh on October 31, 1922.
- In the beginning of the twentieth century, stringent laws were passed in British Columbia, Canada, to discourage the immigration of Indians to Canada. Why were they passed and what were the laws?
The Canadians felt that the growing number of Indians would take over their jobs in factories, mills, and lumber yards. It was these insecurities which led British Columbia to pass the follwing laws to stop the so-called "Brown Invasion":
- Indians had to have at least $200 on their person to enter British Columbia (An average Indian earned about 10 cents a day!)
- They had to come via direct passage from India.
- When was the bill passed denying all Indians the right to vote?
1907 A.D. They were prohibited to run for public office, serve on juries, and were not permitted to become accountants, lawyers, or pharmacists.
- When was the Khalsa Diwan Society established in Vancouver?
In order to fight the unjust immigration laws, the Indians (mostly Sikhs) organized the Khalsa Diwan Society in Vancouver in 1907 with branches in other provinces.
- What does 'Ghadr' mean?
- How did the Ghadr Movement get it's name?
The word 'Ghadr' was the name given to the newspaper edited and published for the Hindustani Association of the Pacific Coast which was founded at Portland, USA, in 1912. The movement this Association gave rise to for revolutionary activities in India also came to be known as the 'Ghadr Movement'.
- What was the 'Komagata Maru'?
The Komagata Maru was a Japanese steamliner chartered by an affluent businessman, Gurdit Singh, to bring Indian immigrants to Canada in 1914. The ship's route departed from Hong Kong, stopped in Japan and then headed to Canada. It's passengers included 376 Indians, all Punjabis, among whom 340 were Sikhs. The ship was eventually turned back at Vancouver where landing was refused, and terminated eventually at Calcutta.
- When did Komagata Maru reach Vancouver?
The Komagata Maru reached Vancouver on May 23, 1914. After two months of a heated legal battle, the ship was forced to leave Vancouver on July 23, 1914. Only 24 passengers were given permission to legally stay in Canada.
- Where was the Komagata Maru redirected to when it approached Calcutta?
When the Komagata Maru approached Calcutta on September 26, 1914, the ship was redirected by European gunboats to a place called Budge Budge, about 17 miles from Calcutta.
- How many Indians were killed by the firing of the British troops in the Budge Budge riot?
Twenty-nine fell victim to the bullets of the British officials and 20 died.
- When did the massacre at Jallianwaala Baagh occur?
April 13, 1919 A.D.
- Who ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed men, women and children assembled at Jallianwaala Baagh?
- How many people were massacred at Jallianwaala Baagh?
309 Sikhs killed at Jallianwaala Baagh
- Why did Udham Singh assassinate Sir Michael O'Dwyer?
Sir Michael O'Dwyer used to be the Lt. Governor of Punjab who had approved General Dyer's
actions at Jallianwaala Baagh
- The massacre at Jallianwaala occurred as a result of a violation of a set of laws
passed by the British Government in India. What was the set of laws called and why were they
The Rowlatt Act - intended to combat revolutionary struggle for freedom
- What was the original Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee (S.G.P.C.) and when did it originate?
The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee was a statutory body comprising elected representatives of the Sikhs concerned primarily with the management of sacred Sikh Shrines under it's control within the terretorial limits of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It originated with the Gurdwara Reform or Akali Movement of the early 1920's.
- When was the inaugural meeting of S.G.P.C. held?
At the Akal Takht on December 20, 1920.
- Who was elected as the first president of S.G.P.C.?
Sardar Sundar Singh Majithia
- Who was elected the new president of the S.G.P.C. in 1921?
Baba Kharak Singh
- When the Golden Temple, the Akal Takht and the adjoining Gurdwaras in Amritsar had passed into the control of the Akalis in October 1920, who was the government-appointed Manager of the Golden Temple?
Sardar Sunder Singh Ramgarhia
- When was Gurdwara Tarn Taran freed from the control of the priests?
January 26, 1921.
- Who were the first martyrs of the Gurdwara Reform Movement?
Bhai Hazara Singh and Bhai Hukum Singh, who achieved martyrdom at Gurdwara Tarn Taran.
- What was the name of the Mahant who controlled Gurdwara Nanakana Sahib?
Mahant Narain Dass.
- When was Gurdwara Nankana Sahib freed from the control of Mahant Narain Dass?
February 21, 1921.
- Who had the possesion of the keys to the Toshakhana?
The government-appointed Manager of the Golden Temple, Sardar Sunder Singh Ramgarhia.
- In the "Keys Affair", on what date were the keys returned to the S.G.P.C.?
January 19, 1922
- Who described the return of the keys to the Golden Temple treasury to Baba Kharak Singh as the "first decisive battle won"?
- What are the most important works of Bhai Vir Singh Ji?
- Guru Nanak Chamatkar
- Kalgidhar Chamatkar
- Baba Nodh Singh
- Merey Saeeyan Jeeo
- What title was Bhai Vir Singh Ji given by the Government of India?
- Bhai Vir Singh Ji was a reputed novelist too. Name some of his important works.
- Bijay Singh
- Satwant Kaur
- In which year did the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee (S.G.P.C.)
accorded their acceptance of the present form of the Sikh Rehat Maryada (Sikh Code of Conduct)
By their resolution No. 14 of 12th October, 1936. (The S.G.P.C.'s Advisory Committee on Religious Matters again considered the draft in its meeting on 7th January, 1945 and made recommendations for certain additions to and deletions from it.)
- What are the contents of 'Dasham Granth'?
- Jaap Saheb
- Bichitra Natak
- Akal Ustat (includes the 10 sawaye of the daily Sikh prayer)
- Shabad Hazare
- Sawaya Tatees
- Chandi Charitra
- Gian Parbodh
- Chaubis Avtaar
- Shastra Nam mala
- What is the Sikh Calendar called?
- Is the Nanakshahi Calendar a Solar or Lunar calendar?
- Which is the year one of the Nanakshahi Calendar?
The year one of the Nanakshai Calendar is the year of Guru Nanak Dev Ji's birth (1469 CE)
- What is the year length of the Nanakshahi Calendar?
The year length of the Nanakshahi Calendar is the same as the Western calendar and is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds.
- What is the length of the months in the Nanakshahi Calendar?
The Nanakshahi Calendar contains 5 months of 31 days followed by 7 months of 30 days. During the leap year (every 4 years), the last month (Phagun) has an extra day.
- Name the months of the Nanakshai Calendar in order.
- Chet (starts-14 March)
- Vaisakhi (starts 14 April)
- Jeth (starts-15 May)
- Haarh (starts-15 June)
- Saavan (starts-16 July)
- Bhaadon (starts-16 August)
- Assu (starts-15 September)
- Kattak (starts-15 October)
- Maggar (starts-14 November)
- Poh (starts-14 December)
- Maagh (starts-13 January)
- Phagun (starts-12 February)
- Who developed the Nanakshahi Calendar?
The Nanakshahi Calendar was developed by a Canadian Sikh, Pal Singh Purewal, a retired computer engineer.
- List the days in the Nanakshahi Calendar in order.
- Aetvaar (Sunday)
- Somvaar (Monday)
- Mangalvaar (Tuesday)
- Budhvaar (Wednesday)
- Veervaar (Thursday)
- Shukarvaar (Friday)
- Chanicharvaar (Saturday)
- When was the Nanakshahi Calendar implemented by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee?
The Nanakshahi Calendar was implemented by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) on April 14, 2003.
- Which year of the Nanakshahi Calendar corresponds with the years 2018-2019?
Samat 550 of the Nanakshahi Calendar.